HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY?
著名学者Vygotsky说：词汇是人类意识的微观世界。（A word is a microcosm of human consciousness.)
Teaching vocabulary can become easier with the use of cards with pictures, diagrams，actions and liberal colour coding for grammatical clarity.
Prefixes and suffixes
Prefixes can make a word negative, for example, adding ‘un-’, ‘a-‘ or ‘dis-’. These inflections are vital for students’ understanding of words and can increase their vocabulary substantially simply by inflecting words they already know.
Suffixes work in this same vocabulary enhancing way, by adding endings such as ‘ing’, ‘less’ and ‘ly’.
Teaching the prefixes and suffixes appropriate to new vocabulary can help students to guess what a new word might mean by reference to words they already know. In this way, prefixes and suffixes can help to introduce new words easily.
For example, knowledge of the word ‘care’ can help a student to guess the meaning of the word ‘careless’.
Present vocabulary with realia
Realia is essential to the learning of ESL vocabulary. For a lesson on how to describe the flavors of different foods, for example, there is nothing better than to have students taste a variety of foods, condiments, herbs, and spices. As you give your class a taste of each ingredient, announce what it is, and give them the accompanying statement that incorporates the vocabulary you are teaching. Examples: This is sugar. Sugar is sweet. These are potato chips. Potato chips are salty. This is mustard. Mustard is sour.
Vocabulary in Context
You don't always have to use a dictionary to learn the meaning of new words in your reading.You can often use context clues to figure out the meaning of a word.
There are four kinds of context clues:
----Examples of the new word
----Synonyms(words that mean the same as the new word)
----Antonyms(words that mean the opposite of the new word)
----The rest of the sentence or the passage
Have students develop their OWN connections, illustrations, and examples.In the final step of direct instruction, students need to personalize the information and capture experiences to develop a growing understanding of the contexts in which words can be used.
For example, if a student heard the word ‘wrangle’ used in one of their favorite movies, have them sketch the scene and describe why ‘wrangle’ was chosen by the scriptwriters.
Create quality vocabulary practices What are some ways students can practice vocabulary without just copying definitions from the dictionary?
Sorting — Guided word sorts consist of telling students the categories in which to sort a list of words. This could be “adjectives,” “nouns,” etc.. For example, students might sort words related to ancient Egypt into people, places and things.
On-purpose errors — The teacher or a member of a small group uses a vocabulary word incorrectly in a sentence (either aloud or in print). Students are then tasked with determining which word fixes the mistake and should replace the erroneous word in the sentence.
故意读错或者印错单词--比如老师故意在这个句子"I am an English teacher."里故意把'an'读成'a'，然后让孩子们发现并去纠正自己。
Word races — Even older students like a good game. Have students line up in teams.Then, you could say the definition and have the students race to the whiteboard to write the word. You could make this more complex, too.
Mind mapping — Mind maps allow visual representations of connections through the use of branches (like a tree) or colors or pictures. Students can use pencil and paper or digital tools to create a semantic map of how they connect to the vocabulary words. Some might choose images. Some might choose song lyrics, colors, or a tree. This is where with instruction, individuals can develop their own creative methods of building a vocabulary.